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Periodontal disease & diabetes

People with diabetes are more susceptible to contracting infections, which makes them more likely to have periodontal disease than those without diabetes. In fact, periodontal disease is often considered a complication of diabetes, and periodontitis has been identified as the sixth complication of diabetes. Those who don’t have their diabetes under control are especially at risk of developing periodontal disease.

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The relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease can worsen both conditions if either condition is not properly controlled. Here are some ways in which diabetes and periodontal disease are linked:

  • Increased blood sugar: Moderate and severe periodontal disease elevates sugar levels in the body, increasing the amount of time the body has to function with high blood sugar. This is why diabetics with periodontitis have difficulty keeping control of their blood sugar. In addition, the higher sugar levels found in the mouth of diabetics provide food for the very bacteria that worsen periodontal infections.

  • Blood vessel thickening: The thickening of the blood vessels is one of the other major concerns for diabetes sufferers. The blood vessels normally serve a vital function for tissues by delivering nutrients and removing waste products. With diabetes, the blood vessels become too thick for these exchanges to occur. This means that harmful waste is left in the mouth and can weaken the resistance of gum tissue, which can lead to infection and gum disease.

  • Smoking: Tobacco use does a great deal of damage in the oral region. Not only does tobacco use slow the healing process, it also vastly increases the chances of an individual developing periodontal disease. For diabetics who smoke, the risk is exponentially greater. In fact, diabetic smokers aged 45 and over are twenty times more likely to develop periodontal disease.

  • Poor oral hygiene: It is essential for diabetics to maintain excellent levels of oral health. When daily brushing and flossing does not occur, the harmful oral bacteria can ingest the excess sugar between the teeth and colonize more freely below the gum line. This exacerbates the metabolic problems that diabetes sufferers experience.

Diagnosis and Treatment

It is important for people with diabetes to visit the dentist at least twice a year for checkups and professional cleanings. Studies have shown that simple non-surgical periodontal treatments can lower the HbA1c count by as much as 20% in a six-month period.

During a dental visit, the dentist will assess the risk factors for periodontal disease by reviewing medical history, family history, and dental X-rays. If necessary, the dentist will work in conjunction with other doctors to ensure that both the diabetes and the gum disease are being managed and controlled as effectively as possible.

Non-surgical procedures performed by the dentist and dental hygienist include deep scaling, where calculus (tartar) will be removed from the teeth above and below the gumline, and root planning, where the root of the tooth is smoothed down to eliminate any remaining bacteria. Local antibiotics may also be applied to the gum pockets to promote healing. Proper home care and oral maintenance will also be recommended as well as prescribing prescription mouthwashes which serve to prevent further bacteria colonization.

If you have questions or concerns about diabetes or periodontal disease, please contact our office.

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